PhD supervisors/advisors – How you can help your PhD students to do an excellent PhD?


𝟏. 𝐁𝐞 𝐚 𝐠𝐨𝐨𝐝 𝐫𝐨𝐥𝐞 𝐦𝐨𝐝𝐞𝐥: Your PhD students follow you in many ways – how you approach a research problem, how you present, how you collaborate, and so on. Subconsciously, the students inherit many research traits from you. Be a great model to produce great researchers.

𝟐. 𝐋𝐞𝐚𝐝 𝐛𝐲 𝐞𝐱𝐚𝐦𝐩𝐥𝐞: Lead your team by example. If you expect the student to be on time for a meeting, you should be on time too. Similarly, if you expect the student to be well-prepared for the meeting or presentation, so should you be. This will give an impression to the student that you have a keen interest in his/her PhD.

𝟑. 𝐒𝐡𝐨𝐰 𝐯𝐚𝐥𝐮𝐞: Instead of asking the student to do a task, show him/her the value of the assigned task. For example, doing task A will help you get this skill and lead to a publication too. This way the student is more likely to do the task in an effective way.

𝟒. 𝐁𝐞 𝐬𝐩𝐞𝐜𝐢𝐟𝐢𝐜: Generic guidance can leave a student in confusion instead of putting him/her on a concrete path. In fact, a student can get generic guidance from anywhere. Be concrete and specific, especially in the first year. Also, give the student the confidence to comfortability asks for any clarifications.

PhD students — 10 things to do in the first year of your PhD.?

𝟓. 𝐋𝐨𝐨𝐤 𝐢𝐧𝐰𝐚𝐫𝐝 𝐭𝐨𝐨: If a student is not progressing, the supervisor should look inward too. Assess in what other ways you can help the student to progress.

𝟔. 𝐍𝐨𝐭 𝐞𝐯𝐞𝐫𝐲 𝐬𝐭𝐮𝐝𝐞𝐧𝐭 𝐢𝐬 𝐀𝐥𝐛𝐞𝐫𝐭 𝐄𝐢𝐧𝐬𝐭𝐞𝐢𝐧: Do not expect the same kind of excellence and productivity from every student. Every student is different – different IQ levels, different personal circumstances, and so on. Do not compare them with yourself either.

𝟕. 𝐋𝐞𝐚𝐯𝐞 𝐰𝐢𝐭𝐡 𝐚𝐜𝐭𝐢𝐨𝐧 𝐩𝐨𝐢𝐧𝐭𝐬: A meeting with your student should end with concrete action points. If a student leaves the meeting in an increased state of confusion, the meeting has served no purpose. One effective way is that the student shares the meeting minutes and action points with the supervisor.

𝟖. 𝐄𝐧𝐜𝐨𝐮𝐫𝐚𝐠𝐞 𝐭𝐨 𝐝𝐞𝐯𝐞𝐥𝐨𝐩 𝐬𝐨𝐟𝐭 𝐬𝐤𝐢𝐥𝐥𝐬: Encourage your student to take part in activities that develop the student’s soft skills such as communication, presentation, networking, and so on. Of course, this should not be at the cost of primary research. Keep track of the trade-offs if any.

𝟗. 𝐏𝐫𝐨𝐯𝐢𝐝𝐞 𝐭𝐢𝐦𝐞𝐥𝐲 𝐟𝐞𝐞𝐝𝐛𝐚𝐜𝐤: PhD students are often short of time, especially at the end of the PhD. Whilst you are very busy, try to give timely feedback, especially on papers. This will help them to complete their PhD on time.

𝟏𝟎. 𝐁𝐞 𝐤𝐢𝐧𝐝: Being kind is a very rare trait – try to be one. We don’t know exactly what the other person is exactly going through. Put yourself in the shoes of the student. Try to understand the student’s concerns and support him/her in whatever way possible.

How do I start #writing my #thesis literature review in PhD?


Way to start #writing my #thesis literature review?

A #PhDstudent recently asked me: How do I start #writing my #thesis literature review?

First, recognize something: you are NOT yet an expert in the field, and that’s okay! The purpose of writing the literature review is to help you become an expert.

Second, a painful truth: This is not something you can rush, and you will have to iterate on it many times over months and years.

Here’s my advice.

Start slowly and methodically.

Ask your advisor to give you one paper that she/he thinks is “great” in your field.

PhD students — 10 things to do in the first year of your PhD.

Read the paper thoroughly. I mean really read it, taking notes on things like:
✏️ Introduction. How do the authors quickly narrow the scope to the “important” and “new” stuff in field? Or is the Intro too broad and meandering?
✏️ Objective. How do the authors identify a knowledge gap and how do they propose to solve it?
✏️ Methods. What do the authors do in the paper? How do they validate their findings?
✏️ Discussion. How do the authors link their data to prior #literature? How do they push beyond reporting #data to discuss its importance?
✏️ Conclusions. What do the authors say it all means by the end? Are you convinced by the evidence?
✏️ Writing. Is the writing clear? What is working/not in terms of the writing for you?
✏️ Structure. How is it organized? Beyond headings, what information is contained in each paragraph?
✏️ References. How do the authors use citations? How are they leveraging prior knowledge?
✏️ You. What don’t you understand from the paper? What do you need to discuss with someone more knowledgeable in the field?

After you read this first paper, discuss it with your advisor or more senior lab mates.

Are you about to start writing your PhD thesis?

Now, go find 2 papers that this first one cites, and 2 papers that cite this first one (all 5 from different authors).
Do the same exercise with these 4 papers (it will go faster the more you do!) AND then – critically – ask yourself:
✏️ How do these 5 papers, together, advance a common idea?
✏️ Why are these papers within the same “citation family” – why are they citing each other?
✏️ Is there something contradictory between the papers? Or are the findings aligned?

Have another conversation with your lab group to talk about the group of papers.

As you continue to read papers, keep the following in mind about literature reviews:
🔍 This is about synthesizing knowledge in the field (hence the second exercise).
🔍 We want to avoid writing things like “Lab 1 did this” and “Lab 2 found this” and “Lab 3 did this.” It lacks depth and evidence of critical thinking.
🔍 We want to tell a scientific story, showing how ideas in the field have evolved over time. Citations are used to support this… but it needs to be our analysis.

And… NEVER copy/paste stuff from a paper into a document. There’s a good chance you’ll forget you did this, and then accidentally end up plagiarizing someone else’s work!


Some frequently asked questions about writing a literature review for a PhD:

  • What exactly is a literature review, not only for a PhD but also for a research paper or any other type of study?
    Literature review is a critical summary of all the research and knowledge that has already been done on a certain topic. In a PhD thesis, it is an important part of the research process for the researcher to evaluate and synthesize what is already known about the topic in order to set the stage for their own study.
  • Why this is important in a PhD thesis?
    This is important because it helps to show how important the research problem is, shows how well the researcher understands the field, and finds gaps in what is already known that the researcher’s study can fill.
  • How do I select a topic for my literature review?
    This is a really good question. Your literature review should be about a topic that is closely related to your research question or problem. It should also be a well-known topic with enough research already done on it.
  • How do I organize my literature review in the time of writing?
    There are different kinds of structure, just like there are different ways to format. Like, it can be done in a certain way, like using a chronological, thematic, or methodological structure. The writing should be clear, brief, and well-organized, and it should have a strong argument or main theme that runs through it.

Writer: Jillian Goldfarb
Associate Professor of Biological & Environmental Engineering,
Cornell University

How to identify the research gap for your PhD and MS/MPhil?


8 Way to identify the research gap for your PhD and MS/MPhil: 

A research gap is an unanswered question or problem in your field. Answering this question or solving this problem will be the objective of your PhD/MS research.

Here is one way to identify the gap.

𝟏. 𝐈𝐝𝐞𝐧𝐭𝐢𝐟𝐲 𝐫𝐞𝐬𝐞𝐚𝐫𝐜𝐡 𝐚𝐫𝐞𝐚: Before identifying the gap, you need to identify the area. This is quite easy. The area can either come from your previous interests or your supervisors can give it to you. For example, detecting cyber-attacks is a research area.

𝟐. 𝐑𝐞𝐚𝐝 𝟓-𝟏𝟎 𝐥𝐢𝐭𝐞𝐫𝐚𝐭𝐮𝐫𝐞 𝐫𝐞𝐯𝐢𝐞𝐰𝐬 𝐢𝐧 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐚𝐫𝐞𝐚: Once the area is identified, search for 5-10 most relevant literature reviews/secondary studies in the area. These papers have already reported a summarized view of the existing primary studies. Read these papers carefully to understand what literature already exists in the area.

𝟑. 𝐅𝐨𝐜𝐮𝐬 𝐨𝐧 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐟𝐮𝐭𝐮𝐫𝐞 𝐫𝐞𝐬𝐞𝐚𝐫𝐜𝐡 𝐢𝐧 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐥𝐢𝐭𝐞𝐫𝐚𝐭𝐮𝐫𝐞 𝐫𝐞𝐯𝐢𝐞𝐰𝐬: While reading these 5-10 literature reviews, focus on the future research areas, open challenges, and discussion section. Identify 3-5 research directions from these literature reviews. Detecting data exfiltration attacks is a research direction.

Are you about to start writing your PhD thesis?

𝟒. 𝐂𝐡𝐞𝐜𝐤 𝐞𝐱𝐢𝐬𝐭𝐢𝐧𝐠 𝐥𝐢𝐭𝐞𝐫𝐚𝐭𝐮𝐫𝐞 𝐫𝐞𝐥𝐚𝐭𝐞𝐝 𝐭𝐨 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐢𝐝𝐞𝐧𝐭𝐢𝐟𝐢𝐞𝐝 𝐝𝐢𝐫𝐞𝐜𝐭𝐢𝐨𝐧𝐬: Just to make sure that you don’t end up doing something that already exists, search primary studies related to the research directions. Drop the ones where exactly similar works exist.

𝟓. 𝐃𝐢𝐬𝐜𝐮𝐬𝐬 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐢𝐝𝐞𝐧𝐭𝐢𝐟𝐢𝐞𝐝 𝐝𝐢𝐫𝐞𝐜𝐭𝐢𝐨𝐧𝐬 𝐰𝐢𝐭𝐡 𝐲𝐨𝐮𝐫 𝐬𝐮𝐩𝐞𝐫𝐯𝐢𝐬𝐨𝐫𝐬: Make a few slides to present the remaining directions to your supervisors. From here, you should pick the direction where you and your supervisor see the most potential.

𝟔. 𝐂𝐨𝐧𝐝𝐮𝐜𝐭 𝐚 𝐥𝐢𝐭𝐞𝐫𝐚𝐭𝐮𝐫𝐞 𝐫𝐞𝐯𝐢𝐞𝐰 𝐨𝐧 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐢𝐝𝐞𝐧𝐭𝐢𝐟𝐢𝐞𝐝 𝐝𝐢𝐫𝐞𝐜𝐭𝐢𝐨𝐧: Once the direction is picked, do a literature review on the specific direction. If no paper exists at all in this direction, this could mean two things – either the topic is not worth doing research or the topic is good but too new.

𝟕. 𝐈𝐝𝐞𝐧𝐭𝐢𝐟𝐲 𝐜𝐫𝐢𝐩𝐬 𝐠𝐚𝐩𝐬 𝐯𝐢𝐚 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐥𝐢𝐭𝐞𝐫𝐚𝐭𝐮𝐫𝐞 𝐫𝐞𝐯𝐢𝐞𝐰: This literature review process should get you the crisp gap. However, it won’t come automatically. While reading each paper, note down the points that you think could be worth future research. This will become part of your discussion or future research section. For example, detecting data exfiltration attacks in real-time is a gap.

𝟖. 𝐂𝐡𝐞𝐜𝐤 𝐫𝐞𝐬𝐨𝐮𝐫𝐜𝐞𝐬 𝐫𝐞𝐪𝐮𝐢𝐫𝐞𝐝 𝐭𝐨 𝐟𝐢𝐥𝐥 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐠𝐚𝐩: Once you have identified the research gap, check what kind of resources, data, infrastructure, etc, you need to conduct this research. Make sure that you can have access to these resources before you start working on the gap.

Writer: Faheem Ullah
Assistant Professor
Computer Science, Australia

Are you about to start writing your PhD thesis?


How to start writing your PhD thesis?

10 things you should know about thesis writing.

𝟏. 𝐔𝐬𝐞 𝐋𝐚𝐭𝐞𝐱, 𝐧𝐨𝐭 𝐌𝐒 𝐖𝐨𝐫𝐝: Writing a 100+ page document in MS word can become a headache. Arranging headings, tables of content, references, etc can become a challenge. So, instead of MS word, use Latex. It will take care of all such things. Also, Latex has many add-ons available that can help with difficult stuff like making tables in Latex.

𝟐. 𝐈𝐝𝐞𝐧𝐭𝐢𝐟𝐲 𝐞𝐱𝐞𝐦𝐩𝐥𝐚𝐫 𝐭𝐡𝐞𝐬𝐞𝐬: Before starting your thesis, identify 10-15 exemplar theses that is within your research area or the PhD is carried out in a similar fashion as yours. Skim through them especially the first chapter to understand how to structure your thesis.

𝟑. 𝐁𝐮𝐢𝐥𝐝 𝐚 𝐬𝐭𝐨𝐫𝐲: During your PhD, you work on different papers that might not be totally linked in a straightforward way. Put these different pieces in front of yourself and think about how to make them link with each other and make a smooth story.

𝟒. 𝐈𝐧𝐭𝐫𝐨𝐝𝐮𝐜𝐭𝐢𝐨𝐧 𝐢𝐬 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐦𝐚𝐤𝐞 𝐨𝐫 𝐛𝐫𝐞𝐚𝐤: This chapter summarizes your whole thesis and leaves an impression on the reader/examiner. Invest the most amount of time in writing this chapter. Amongst others, clearly mention upfront the research papers you have published during your PhD.

PhD students — How to 10x your PhD productivity?

𝟓. 𝐂𝐫𝐢𝐬𝐩 𝐩𝐫𝐨𝐛𝐥𝐞𝐦 𝐬𝐭𝐚𝐭𝐞𝐦𝐞𝐧𝐭 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐜𝐨𝐧𝐭𝐫𝐢𝐛𝐮𝐭𝐢𝐨𝐧𝐬: Mention within 3-4 lines the concrete problem you have solved during your PhD. Also, examiners look for 3-4 solid contributions made by the PhD student. Don’t make them search for them. Present these contributions upfront in the Introduction chapter.

𝟔. 𝐓𝐡𝐞𝐬𝐢𝐬 𝐨𝐫𝐠𝐚𝐧𝐢𝐳𝐚𝐭𝐢𝐨𝐧 𝐯𝐢𝐚 𝐚 𝐟𝐢𝐠𝐮𝐫𝐞:  PhD thesis is a very long document. Navigating through it can be a challenge. Include a figure in the Introduction section that shows the organization of the thesis including the various chapters. A reviewer can just print this figure and keep it in front of himself/herself to navigate through the whole thesis.

𝟕. 𝐆𝐢𝐯𝐞 𝐢𝐭 𝐭𝐢𝐦𝐞: Don’t leave thesis writing until the very end. Depending upon the situation, at least leave 4 months for thesis writing.

𝟖. 𝐒𝐞𝐞𝐤 𝐟𝐞𝐞𝐝𝐛𝐚𝐜𝐤: Manage your writing in a way that each part gets reviewed. If you are running short of time, you can send each chapter separately as it completes to your supervisors for feedback.

𝟗. 𝐓𝐡𝐨𝐫𝐨𝐮𝐠𝐡𝐥𝐲 𝐩𝐫𝐨𝐨𝐟𝐫𝐞𝐚𝐝: One of the most common comments from thesis reviewers is to fix the typos. Proofread your entire thesis a couple of times before submission to avoid getting this comment.

Why should you do a PhD?

𝟏𝟎. 𝐋𝐢𝐧𝐤 𝐜𝐡𝐚𝐩𝐭𝐞𝐫𝐬 𝐭𝐨 𝐞𝐚𝐜𝐡 𝐨𝐭𝐡𝐞𝐫: Make sure that the chapters are linked together. For example, it shouldn’t appear that when the reviewer starts reading chapter 4, it is completely different from chapter 3. At the start of chapter 4 or end of chapter 3, mention how they are linked.

Writer: Faheem Ullah
Assistant Professor
Computer Science, Australia

10 things to do in your master’s or MPhil…


These 10 things will 10x your chances of getting a good job or a PhD position.

𝟏. 𝐏𝐮𝐛𝐥𝐢𝐬𝐡 𝐚𝐭 𝐥𝐞𝐚𝐬𝐭 𝐨𝐧𝐞 𝐫𝐞𝐬𝐞𝐚𝐫𝐜𝐡 𝐩𝐚𝐩𝐞𝐫: During your master/MPhil, you will work on several projects some of which will be research-focused especially your thesis project. Make sure that you work on projects with the potential to get you a published paper. Don’t wait for the right time, write and submit your papers.

𝟐. 𝐂𝐡𝐨𝐨𝐬𝐞 𝐚 𝐬𝐮𝐩𝐞𝐫𝐯𝐢𝐬𝐨𝐫 𝐚𝐜𝐭𝐢𝐯𝐞 𝐢𝐧 𝐫𝐞𝐬𝐞𝐚𝐫𝐜𝐡: While selecting a supervisor for your master/MPhil thesis, go for the one who is publishing good quality papers. This supervisor will help you to publish papers and introduce you to future opportunities.

𝟑. 𝐁𝐮𝐢𝐥𝐝 𝐚 𝐜𝐨𝐮𝐩𝐥𝐞 𝐨𝐟 𝐢𝐧𝐭𝐞𝐫𝐧𝐚𝐭𝐢𝐨𝐧𝐚𝐥 𝐜𝐨𝐥𝐥𝐚𝐛𝐨𝐫𝐚𝐭𝐢𝐨𝐧𝐬: It’s always good to start collaborating with international professors. Build these collaborations during your master’s/MPhil. You can volunteer at this time. This collaboration may get you a PhD position after completing your master/MPhil.

How to identify the research gap for your PhD and MS/MPhil?

𝟒. 𝐒𝐞𝐥𝐞𝐜𝐭 𝐜𝐨𝐮𝐫𝐬𝐞𝐬 𝐭𝐡𝐚𝐭 𝐡𝐚𝐯𝐞 𝐡𝐢𝐠𝐡 𝐝𝐞𝐦𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐢𝐧 𝐢𝐧𝐝𝐮𝐬𝐭𝐫𝐲 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐫𝐞𝐬𝐞𝐚𝐫𝐜𝐡: You will the option to select courses from a large pool of courses. Don’t go for the easy courses. Instead, select courses that either make you ready for industry or research.

𝟓. 𝐃𝐞𝐯𝐞𝐥𝐨𝐩 𝐚𝐭 𝐥𝐞𝐚𝐬𝐭 𝟑 𝐡𝐚𝐫𝐝 𝐬𝐤𝐢𝐥𝐥𝐬: Pick at least 3 hard skills and master these skills. For example, if you are in IT/computer science, you can pick Python programming, data engineering, and ML to master.

𝟔. 𝐃𝐞𝐯𝐞𝐥𝐨𝐩 𝐚𝐭 𝐥𝐞𝐚𝐬𝐭 𝟑 𝐬𝐨𝐟𝐭 𝐬𝐤𝐢𝐥𝐥𝐬: Similarly, pick at least 3 soft skills and master them during these 2 years. These skills can be presentation, networking, and interview skills.

𝟕. 𝐋𝐞𝐚𝐫𝐧 𝐡𝐨𝐰 𝐭𝐨 𝐜𝐫𝐞𝐚𝐭𝐞 𝐨𝐩𝐩𝐨𝐫𝐭𝐮𝐧𝐢𝐭𝐢𝐞𝐬: Opportunities won’t knock at your door themselves. You need to learn how to create opportunities such as an industry internship, a research visit, establishing collaboration, and landing your dream position after the completion of your degree.

𝟖. 𝐖𝐨𝐫𝐤 𝐚𝐬 𝐚 𝐭𝐞𝐚𝐜𝐡𝐢𝐧𝐠 𝐚𝐬𝐬𝐢𝐬𝐭𝐚𝐧𝐭 𝐨𝐫 𝐫𝐞𝐬𝐞𝐚𝐫𝐜𝐡 𝐚𝐬𝐬𝐢𝐬𝐭𝐚𝐧𝐭: If your schedule allows you to work as a teaching assistant or research assistant during master’s, go for it. It will get you skills that would help you in getting future jobs.

𝟗. 𝐆𝐞𝐭 𝐠𝐨𝐨𝐝 𝐠𝐫𝐚𝐝𝐞𝐬:  While doing the rest, don’t forget to get good grades as they do help to get you a good job or PhD position afterward.

𝟏𝟎.  𝐃𝐨𝐧’𝐭 𝐣𝐮𝐬𝐭 𝐝𝐨 𝐢𝐭 𝐟𝐨𝐫 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐬𝐚𝐤𝐞 𝐨𝐟 𝐚 𝐝𝐞𝐠𝐫𝐞𝐞: Some students just take courses without significant learning and complete the degree. Don’t take this path. Do master with a clear purpose such as learning skills, landing a specific job, or getting a top-notch PhD position. Once the purpose is defined, then execute accordingly.

Writer: Faheem Ullah
Assistant Professor
Computer Science, Australia

Why should you do a PhD?


10 reasons for doing a PhD?

Here are 10 benefits of doing a PhD.

𝟏. 𝐄𝐱𝐩𝐨𝐬𝐮𝐫𝐞: You will likely travel to another country or city for your PhD. During your PhD, you will also travel to different countries for conferences, workshops, research visits, and field trips. All of this will get you a lot of exposure. You will learn and experience many interesting things.

𝟐. 𝐂𝐚𝐫𝐞𝐞𝐫 𝐠𝐫𝐨𝐰𝐭𝐡: One undeniable benefit of PhD is that it will boost your career. This is especially true for academics. Other than this, PhD qualification is also required to work in advanced positions in industry and government agencies.

PhD students — How to 10x your PhD productivity?

𝟑. 𝐃𝐞𝐯𝐞𝐥𝐨𝐩𝐢𝐧𝐠 𝐡𝐚𝐫𝐝 𝐬𝐤𝐢𝐥𝐥𝐬: You will develop deep technical skills in your field. For example, you will learn the implementation of ML/DL systems if your PhD is focused on AI. These deep technical skills will make you stand out among your competitors.

𝟒. 𝐃𝐞𝐯𝐞𝐥𝐨𝐩𝐢𝐧𝐠 𝐬𝐨𝐟𝐭 𝐬𝐤𝐢𝐥𝐥𝐬: PhD will enrich your personality with several soft skills such as presentation, communication, collaboration, networking, critical thinking, and so on. You will often practice these during your PhD.

𝟓. 𝐆𝐫𝐨𝐰𝐭𝐡 𝐢𝐧 𝐲𝐨𝐮𝐫 𝐩𝐫𝐨𝐟𝐞𝐬𝐬𝐢𝐨𝐧𝐚𝐥 𝐧𝐞𝐭𝐰𝐨𝐫𝐤: You will interact with several individuals during your PhD. These interactions will happen in multiple places – conferences, workshops, seminars, and so on. This network will open doors for future opportunities.

𝟔. 𝐊𝐧𝐨𝐰𝐥𝐞𝐝𝐠𝐞 𝐜𝐨𝐧𝐭𝐫𝐢𝐛𝐮𝐭𝐢𝐨𝐧𝐬: You will contribute to the body of knowledge in your field. This will get you a strong feeling of accomplishment. Your findings may have a direct impact on the well-being of people.

Do you want to have a CV that can get you a PhD position?

𝟕. 𝐑𝐞𝐬𝐢𝐥𝐢𝐞𝐧𝐜𝐞: Your PhD journey will test you in many ways – paper rejections, criticisms, financial hardships, and so on. All of this will make you resilient. Eventually, you will be unbreakable in front of many such challenges.

𝟖. 𝐏𝐫𝐨𝐛𝐥𝐞𝐦 𝐬𝐨𝐥𝐯𝐞𝐫: You will become a problem solver. Since most of the PhD is about identifying and solving complex problems, your mind will get trained for it. Then, this mindset can help you solve many non-research problems too.

𝟗. 𝐁𝐞𝐢𝐧𝐠 𝐩𝐚𝐢𝐝 𝐭𝐨 𝐥𝐞𝐚𝐫𝐧: Most PhD students have scholarships covering their tuition fees and living expenses. In return, you work on things you are passionate about and learn many skills.

𝟏𝟎. 𝐆𝐞𝐭 𝐲𝐨𝐮 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐭𝐢𝐭𝐥𝐞 ‘𝐃𝐫’:  If you are interested in titles, PhD will get you that too. You can call yourself ‘Dr.’ after successfully completing your PhD :).

Writer: Faheem Ullah
Assistant Professor
Computer Science, Australia